Many people who have experienced such a disease as thrombophlebitis have many questions on this topic but have no answers, especially if you have just encountered this problem and do not even know which specialist can help you. In this article, we will explain what exactly could cause this illness and how to live with it.
Why does thrombophlebitis develop?
A favorable condition for the development of thrombophlebitis is varicose leg disease. In this case, stagnation of blood in the veins, weakness of the venous walls, venous insufficiency, increased venous pressure and deformation of the venous walls, all these factors are sufficient for any infection to penetrate into the vessel wall and cause its inflammation.
Reduced immunity, thickening of blood caused by disease or medication, also facilitates the attachment of infectious agents on the vascular wall.
To provoke a thrombophlebitis can trauma of a venous wall, medical procedure (an intravenous injection, a catheterization of a vein, vascular operations, etc.), an infectious disease, for example, a flu, ORVI, a pneumonia, a tonsillitis, a tuberculosis and even caries.
What are the symptoms of thrombophlebitis?
It begins with pain in the legs. The intensity of pain can be strong or not, but in any case it increases with walking. Patients note the soreness of the skin on the course of the subcutaneous veins when touching.
You can see that the skin over the inflamed veins blushed. Over time, this reddening is replaced by a cyanotic shade, and then the skin becomes brown. The temperature of the skin area above the inflamed vein is higher than in other areas.
The skin above the veins, in which there are thrombi, thickens and along the course of the vessels it is possible to feel a painful stitch. It should be noted that the tip of blood clots is most often located above the site of visible redness and 15-20 cm of striae. Often there is an increase in body temperature, but after about a week or earlier the temperature returns to normal values. Sometimes an increase in body temperature with this disease may not be. A small swelling of the leg develops, on which the veins are inflamed.
The biggest trouble is the spread of inflammation to the deep veins, the thrombosis of which is fraught with serious complications.
What are the complications of thrombophlebitis
The most terrible complication occurs if the thrombus is attached to the vascular wall not firmly and its apex floats in the lumen of the vein. In this case, it is said that the tip of the thrombus flotates. At some point, a part of such a clot can come off, with a current of blood penetrate into the heart and cause embolism (blockage) of the pulmonary artery. Depending on the diameter and the level of the clogged vessel, thromboembolism can lead to sudden death, shock, systemic hypotension, heart failure, a lung infarction, or terminate asymptomatically.
Sepsis (infection of the blood) is no less severe, which often ends in a fatal outcome.
If this illness is not treated or treated inadequately, for example, with self-medication only folk remedies, the inflammation can move to the surrounding tissues and take a purulent character - develops abscess or phlegmon of the leg tissues.
How to provide first aid? What to do and what not to do?
If symptoms of acute thrombophlebitis have appeared, the first thing to do is to call a doctor. Then it is necessary to go to bed and give the sick leg a sublime position, placing a pillow under it.
In no case make any mechanical manipulation of the diseased area - do not massage, do not rub ointments and creams, even if it seems to you that they are very useful. It is better from such treatment will not, and the risk of separation of the thrombus significantly increases.
With folk remedies, it's better to wait and start using them only when there is a positive effect from the main treatment prescribed and controlled by the doctor.
How to diagnose thrombophlebitis?
The main purpose of instrumental diagnostic studies is to establish the nature and level of the location of thrombi. For this purpose: rheovasography, ultrasound dopplerography, radiopaque phlebography are used.
Treatment of thrombophlebitis?
Most patients can undergo conservative treatment on an outpatient basis. Emergency surgical intervention and hospital treatment are required when there is a threat of the transition of inflammation and the formation of thrombi to the deep veins of the legs.
Patients are prescribed an active regimen. The appointment of bed rest is a mistake, since in this case the muscular-venous pump of the lower leg will not work, thanks to which the blood flow in the deep veins is ensured, which means that blood stasis and thrombus formation will increase.
In the early days of the disease, it is recommended that a bandage is formed using elastic bandages of medium extensibility. When the inflammatory phenomena begin to fade, you can use special medical stockings, tights of the second or third compression class. For the removal of soreness, local cooling proved to be very good.
The drug treatment of thrombophlebitis
is also aimed at eliminating the processes of inflammation and thrombosis but only doctor can tell you which one can help you. All what you can do is to find reviews about such medication and choose the best pharmacy on special Online Pharmacy Reviews
Life with thrombophlebitis?
Motor activity is of great importance, as it prevents the stagnation of blood and reduces the likelihood of blood clots.
If the disease has switched to deep veins, then the movement will have to limit itself, because even a slight physical strain can cause the clot to be ruptured.
What doctor can help?
In order to diagnose, determine the stage of the disease and get recommendations for the treatment you should consult a phlebologist or a vascular surgeon. With the development of complications in treatment, a cardiologist can take part. If you doubt the choice of a specialist, you can simply make an appointment with a surgeon or therapist, they will prompt you where you can get the most qualified help.